It looks at how a specific individual usually a child , at a specific age, performs intellectually, compared to average intellectual performance for that individual's actual chronological age i. The intellectual performance is based on performance in tests and live assessments by a psychologist. The score achieved by the individual is compared to the median average scores at various ages, and the mental age x , say is derived such that the individual's score equates to the average score at age x. However, mental age depends on what kind of intelligence is measured.
For instance, a child's intellectual age can be average for their actual age, but the same child's emotional intelligence can be immature for their physical age.
Sources of information may include Records e. FORMS of mental self-government:. Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Tests and Measures scale. They may involve manipulating objects, tracing mazes, placing pictures in the proper order, and finishing patterns, for example. The premise of these projective measures is that when presented with ambiguous. Developing appropriate norms depends on size and representativeness of the sample.
Psychologists often remark that girls are more emotionally mature than boys at around the age of puberty. Also, a six-year-old child intellectually gifted in Piaget [ clarification needed ] terms can remain a three-year-old child in terms of emotional maturity.
During much of the 19th century, theories of intelligence focused on measuring the size of human skulls. The modern theories of intelligence began to emerge along with experimental psychology. This is when much of psychology was moving from philosophical to more biology and medical science basis.
In , James Cattell published what some consider the first "mental test". Cattell was more focused on heredity rather than environment.
This spurs much of the debate about the nature of intelligence. Mental age was first defined by the French psychologist Alfred Binet , who introduced the intelligence test in , with the assistance of Theodore Simon. He created an experiment that was designed as a test to be completed quickly and was taken by children of various ages.
In general, of course older children performed better on these tests than younger ones. However, the younger children who had exceeded the average of their age group were said to have a higher "mental age", and those who performed below that average were deemed to have a lower "mental age". Binet's theories suggested that while mental age was a useful indicator, it was by no means fixed permanently, and individual growth or decline could be attributed to changes in teaching methods and experiences. He was one of the many psychologists in the s who believed intelligence was a fixed quantity.
While Binet believed this was not true, the majority of those in the USA believed it was hereditary. These two tests were split into two different ones for children. The reason for this test was to score the individual and compare it to others of the same age group rather than to score by chronological age and mental age.
The fixed average is and the normal range is between 85 and This is a standard currently used and is used in the Stanford-Binet test as well. Originally, the ratio of the mental age to the chronological age was used to compute the intelligence quotient , or IQ. The formula was:.
It is a concept of intelligence that equates to combinations of individual preferences from three levels of mental self-management. These three areas correspond with:.
People must organize or govern themselves and the way they do this corresponds to the kinds of governments and government braches that exist worldwide — legislative, executive, judicial, monarchic, hierarchic, and oligarchic. There are 13 styles under five categories, and most people tend toward one style within each category, although these preferences may vary with the task and situation.
A child may be liberal in science class enjoy doing things in new ways and may be conservative in cooking class prefers the familiar recipe.
Many of Sternberg's characterizations appear to equate to some of the aspects of personality type theory developed by Carl Jung. These might equate to preferences for either introversion or extraversion in Jungian typology. The Mental Self-Government Model. FORMS of mental self-government:.
They deal best with one goal or need at a time. These people can prioritize goals easily.
Often they don't like or understand the need for rules and regulations.